Founded on 1 April 1895, the Indian army is the land-based branch of the Indian Armed Forces. It plays the role of Land Warfare in Indian Defence. It is led by the President of India who is the designated Chief Commander of Army and the Chief of Army Staff who is a four-star general.
To maintain national security and unity while maintaining peace and security within the country's borders and protecting the nation from external and internal aggression is the prime role of the Indian Army.
East India Company created a Military Department in Kolkata in 1776 to record orders issued to the army by the EIC. The military department and 3 branches of the Secretariat of Government of EIC were unified 1 April 1895 to form the Indian Army. It was divided into 4 Commands in Punjab, Bengal, Madras, and Bombay respectively for administrative convenience.
Under the British Empire, the Indian Army not only maintained the internal security of the British Raj but also fought many wars including the Anglo-Burmese Wars, the Anglo-Sikh wars, the Anglo-Afghan wars; the two opium wars, and the Boxer Rebellion in China and Abyssinia. 1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I under the influence of the British Government's promises of self-governance by the Indian National Congress in return for its support. When the British copped out on their word, the rebellion of the Indian Independence Movement strengthened.
Some of the legendary wars that the Indian Army fought were the Kargil War (1999), The Bangladesh Liberation War (1971), The 1965 Indo-Pak War, The Sino-Indian War 1962.
General Manoj Mukund Naravane is the Chief of the Army Staff while Lieutenant General Satinder Kumar Saini is the Vice Chief of the Army Staff. The troops are organized into 40 Divisions in 14 Corps. Army headquarters is located in the Indian capital, New Delhi.
The army operates 6 operational commands and 1 training command, each headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief. All the commands directly report to the Army Headquarters in New Delhi.
The Indian Territorial Army has battalions affiliated with different infantry regiments like Armored Corps, Regiment of Artillery, Corps of Army Air Defence, Army Aviation Corps, Corps of Engineers, Corps of Signals, and Mechanised Infantry. It is also affiliated with department units that are from the Corps of Engineers, Army Medical Corps, or the Army Service Corps.
Mission and Doctrine
The main objective of the Indian Army is to defend the nation's frontiers. It also prevents internal conflict and provides security against various insurgencies in Kashmir and Northeast India. To protect the nation's interests in far-off countries, the Indian Army in affiliation with the Indian Navy is setting up a marine brigade.
Holding formations and strike formations to contain the enemy attacks and counter-attack to neutralize the enemy's offense respectively. The Indian Army is large enough to engage several corps in the strike role.