The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial court or simply the top court functioning under the Constitution of India with the power of judicial review. It can have a maximum of 34 judges that are headed by the Chief Justice of India. Justice Sharad Arvind Bobde is the current Chief Justice of India, who is succeeding Justice Ranjan Gogoi. The apex court has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions. The Supreme court functions as the constitutional court of the country and as the most powerful government institution in India, its role is to take up appeals against the verdicts of the high courts, session courts and to safeguard the fundamental rights of the citizens of the country. It also plays a key role in solving disputes between various governments.
Till 1935, the High Courts acted as the highest courts in the country after the Supreme Courts in Calcutta(Kolkata), Madras(Chennai) and Bombay(Mumbai) were abolished. However, the Federal Court of India was created under the Government of India Act 1935 and it was treated as the highest court. It was on 28 January 1950, that the Supreme Court came into existence and it replaced both, the Federal Court as well as the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Justice H.J Kania was the first Chief Justice of India.
Members of Collegium
The Members of Collegium is a body that comprises of the Chief Justice of India and four other senior judges. The role of the collegium is appointment and transfer of judges in High Courts and Supreme Court.
- Sharad Arvind Bobde(CJI)
- N.V. Ramana
- Arun Kumar Mishra
- Rohinton Fali Nariman
- R. Banumathi